Leonardo da vinci ,Paintings, Inventions, Height, Wife & More

Leonardo da Vinci

Italian artist, engineer, and scientist

Leonardo da Vinci: self-portrait

Born:
April 15, 1452 Italy
Died:
May 2, 1519 (aged 67) France
Notable Works:
“Battle of Anghiari” “Last Supper” “Leda” “Mona Lisa” “Portrait of Ginevra de’ Benci” “St Jerome” “The Benois Madonna” “The Virgin of the Rocks” “Treatise on Painting” “Virgin and Child with St Anne”
Movement / Style:
Early Renaissance Renaissance
Subjects Of Study:
proportion anatomy cosmology mechanics architecture

Leonardo da Vinci, (Italian: “Leonardo from Vinci”) (born April 15, 1452, Anchiano, near Vinci, Republic of Florence —died May 2, 1519, Cloux , France), Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer whose skill and intelligence, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal His (1495–98) and (c 1503–19) are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance His notebooks reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of their time

The unique fame that Leonardo enjoyed in his lifetime and that, filtered by historical criticism, has remained undimmed to the present day rests largely on his unlimited desire for knowledge, which guided all his thinking and behaviour An artist by disposition and endowment, he considered his eyes to be his main avenue to knowledge; to Leonardo, sight was man’s highest sense because it alone conveyed the facts of experience immediately, correctly, and with certainty Hence, every phenomenon perceived became an object of knowledge, and (“knowing how to see”) became the great theme of his studies He applied his creativity to every realm in which graphic representation is used: he was a painter, sculptor, architect, and engineer But he went even beyond that He used his superb intellect, unusual powers of observation, and mastery of the art of drawing to study nature itself, a line of inquiry that allowed his dual pursuits of art and science to flourish

Life and works

Early period: Florence

Leonardo’s parents were unmarried at the time of his birth His father, Ser Piero, was a Florentine notary and landlord, and his mother, Caterina, was a young peasant woman who shortly thereafter married an artisan Leonardo grew up on his father’s family’s estate, where he was treated as a “legitimate” son and received the usual elementary education of that day: reading, writing, and arithmetic Leonardo did not seriously study Latin, the key language of traditional learning, until much later, when he acquired a working knowledge of it on his own He also did not apply himself to higher mathematics—advanced geometry and arithmetic—until he was 30 years old, when he began to study it with diligent tenacity

Leonardo’s artistic inclinations must have appeared early When he was about 15, his father, who enjoyed a high reputation in the Florence community, apprenticed him to artist Andrea del Verrocchio In Verrocchio’s renowned workshop Leonardo received a multifaceted training that included painting and sculpture as well as the technical-mechanical arts He also worked in the next-door workshop of artist Antonio Pollaiuolo In 1472 Leonardo was accepted into the painters’ guild of Florence, but he remained in his teacher’s workshop for five more years, after which time he worked independently in Florence until 1481 There are a great many superb extant pen and pencil drawings from this period, including many technical sketches—for example, pumps, military weapons, mechanical apparatus—that offer evidence of Leonardo’s interest in and knowledge of technical matters even at the outset of his career

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First Milanese period (1482–99)

In 1482 Leonardo moved to Milan to work in the service of the city’s duke—a surprising step when one realizes that the 30-year-old artist had just received his first substantial commissions from his native city of Florence: the unfinished panel painting for the monastery of San Donato a Scopeto and an altar painting for the St Bernard Chapel in the Palazzo della Signoria, which was never begun That he gave up both projects seems to indicate that he had deeper reasons for leaving Florence It may have been that the rather sophisticated spirit of Neoplatonism prevailing in the Florence of the Medici went against the grain of Leonardo’s experience-oriented mind and that the more strict, academic atmosphere of Milan attracted him Moreover, he was no doubt enticed by Duke Ludovico Sforza’s brilliant court and the meaningful projects awaiting him there

Leonardo spent 17 years in Milan, until Ludovico’s fall from power in 1499 He was listed in the register of the royal household as (“painter and engineer of the duke”) Leonardo’s gracious but reserved personality and elegant bearing were well-received in court circles Highly esteemed, he was constantly kept busy as a painter and sculptor and as a designer of court festivals He was also frequently consulted as a technical adviser in the fields of architecture, fortifications, and military matters, and he served as a hydraulic and mechanical engineer As he would throughout his life, Leonardo set boundless goals for himself; if one traces the outlines of his work for this period, or for his life as a whole, one is tempted to call it a grandiose “unfinished symphony”

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As a painter, Leonardo completed six works in the 17 years in Milan (According to contemporary sources, Leonardo was commissioned to create three more pictures, but these works have since disappeared or were never done) From about 1483 to 1486, he worked on the altar painting , a project that led to 10 years of litigation between the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception, which commissioned it, and Leonardo; for uncertain purposes, this legal dispute led Leonardo to create another version of the work in about 1508 During this first Milanese period he also made one of his most famous works, the monumental wall painting (1495–98) in the refectory of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie (for more analysis of this work, ) Also of note is the decorative ceiling painting (1498) he made for the Sala delle Asse in the Milan Castello Sforzesco

During this period Leonardo worked on a grandiose sculptural project that seems to have been the real reason he was invited to Milan: a monumental equestrian statue in bronze to be erected in honour of Francesco Sforza, the founder of the Sforza dynasty Leonardo devoted 12 years—with interruptions—to this task In 1493 the clay model of the horse was put on public display on the occasion of the marriage of Emperor Maximilian to Bianca Maria Sforza, and preparations were made to cast the colossal figure, which was to be 16 feet (5 metres) high But, because of the imminent danger of war, the metal, ready to be poured, was used to make cannons instead, causing the project to come to a halt Ludovico’s fall in 1499 sealed the fate of this abortive undertaking, which was perhaps the grandest concept of a monument in the 15th century The ensuing war left the clay model a heap of ruins

As a master artist, Leonardo maintained an extensive workshop in Milan, employing apprentices and students Among Leonardo’s pupils at this time were Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio, Ambrogio de Predis, Bernardino de’ Conti, Francesco Napoletano, Andrea Solari, Marco d’Oggiono, and Salai The role of most of these associates is unclear, leading to the question of Leonardo’s so-called apocryphal works, on which the master collaborated with his assistants Scholars have been unable to agree in their attributions of these works